By Andrey Yurkov
This e-book information the peculiarities of the necessities for refractories designed for aluminium metallurgical strategy: aid, forged apartment, and anode creation. the writer describes necessities particular to the homes and constitution of refractory fabrics that differentiate it from the refractories for ferrous metallurgy and different refractories. A comparability is drawn among the houses and constitution of refractories and carbon cathode fabrics from diverse issues of view: from the purpose of actual chemistry and chemistry interactions throughout the metallurgical technique and from the purpose of layout of relief pots and furnaces with the point to the carrier existence time of metallurgical aggregates.
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This ebook info the peculiarities of the necessities for refractories designed for aluminium metallurgical technique: relief, solid condo, and anode creation. the writer describes necessities particular to the homes and constitution of refractory fabrics that differentiate it from the refractories for ferrous metallurgy and different refractories.
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Additional info for Refractories for Aluminium: Electrolysis and the Cast House
The hardness determination of refractories is limited by its heterogeneous coarse-grained structure. The hardness values characterize small volumes of the material. There is no standard for the determination of the hardness for refractories; for research purposes, it is possible to use ASTM C1327-08  and ASTM C1326-13  for structural ceramics. Many publications describe the determination of the fracture toughness of ceramics by measurement of cracks around the indented areas during hardness testing [61–63].
Although plant repair managers are rather conservative in everything that concerns the use of lining materials for the relining of reduction cells, sometimes they have to change the type and the producer of cathode blocks, and here the exact directly measured values of the thermal conductivity of cathode blocks at high temperatures might be very useful – at least to keep the preheating and startup period unchanged. Next, the startup period will be more influenced by impregnation of the carbon blocks by the cryolite, because the thermal conductivity will be increased several times (to be discussed in Sect.
Test piece dimensions are 150 mm Â 25 mm Â 25 mm. According to ASTM C-583-00  and ISO 5013-85 , the three-point bending apparatus is used, and the rate of heating below 980 C should be below 330 C/h and not exceed 110 /h after 980 C with exposure at least for 3 h. For castables and chemically bonded materials, the exposure at the temperature of testing should be above 12 h. The HMOR values are calculated according to the equation for the three-point bending test [Eq. 11)]. 26 1 The Properties of Refractory and Heat Insulation Materials The MOR is an important variable in the characterization of refractory materials.
Refractories for Aluminium: Electrolysis and the Cast House by Andrey Yurkov