By Chandra Kopparapu
From an insider--a shut examine high-performance, end-to-end switching solutions
Load balancers are quickly turning into an essential resolution for dealing with the large site visitors calls for of the internet. Their skill to unravel a large number of community and server bottlenecks within the web age levels from dramatic advancements in server farm scalability to removal the firewall as a community bottleneck. This publication offers a close, updated, technical dialogue of this fast-growing, multibillion buck marketplace, masking the complete spectrum of topics--from server and firewall load balancing to obvious cache switching to international server load balancing. within the procedure, the writer supplies perception into the best way new applied sciences are deployed in community infrastructure and the way they paintings. Written by way of an specialist who hails from a number one internet change seller, this booklet can assist community and server directors increase the scalability, availability, manageability, and protection in their servers, firewalls, caches, and sites.
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Additional info for Load Balancing Servers, Firewalls and Caches
In UDP, there are no semantics deﬁned for session initiation and termination. While TCP and UDP run on top of IP, there can be some trafﬁc that is neither TCP nor UDP. It may be some proprietary protocol on top of IP or may just be running at IP level. In that case, the load balancer can only identify a session as an information exchange between a pair of hosts identiﬁed by a source IP and destination IP as identiﬁed in the IP packets. Stateful load balancing requires the load balancer to be cognizant of the protocol semantics to recognize the session initiation and termination.
If one server goes down, the other can be brought online while the failed server is being repaired. Before load-balancing products were invented, DNS was often used to distribute load across multiple servers. com. The DNS can then provide one of the conﬁgured IP addresses in a round-robin manner for each DNS query. While this accomplishes a rudimentary form of load balancing, this approach is limited in many ways. DNS has no knowledge of 16 C HAPTE R T WO the load or health of a server. It may continue to provide the IP address of a server even if it is down.
The load balancer creates a session entry when the client sends a TCP SYN request, or sees a UDP packet for which the session key is not in the session table. The load balancer assigns a real server based on the conﬁgured load-distribution method, and marks the entry in the session table. For all subsequent packets for these sessions, the load balancer ﬁnds the session key in the session table and forwards it to the assigned server. 5 is a simpliﬁed version because the load balancer may maintain a lot more information for each session.
Load Balancing Servers, Firewalls and Caches by Chandra Kopparapu