By Patrick A. Narbel, Jan Petter Hansen, Jan R. Lien
This is an easy-to-read textbook delivering the reader with the foundation to appreciate the key power applied sciences from a actual and low cost perspective.
The trip throughout the publication starts off with a few historical past idea at the physics and economics of strength. significant power applied sciences (fossil, nuclear and renewable) are explored in-depth, explaining how they paintings and the prices concerned. eventually, the adventure ends by means of exploring the technical and fiscal feasibility of delivering the area by means of 2050 with sustainable strength only.
Numerous examples are supplied to permit the reader to narrate vital innovations to real-life. The reader’s knowing of the fabric can then be demonstrated utilizing the routines on the finish of every chapter.
This textbook is the 1st to completely current the physics and the economics of power. it's meant for graduate scholars and practitioners attracted to the sector of power. It additionally allows the final reader to differentiate among political assertion and fact.
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Extra info for Energy Technologies and Economics
It is likely that the change of CO2 will increase the global temperature above today’s normal. How much the temperature will increase is uncertain, but current IPCC numbers forecast an increase between 3 and 5◦ above preindustrial “normal” level by the end of the century. However, what is “normal” temperature is a difficult issue as well: The Earth’s temperature depends on other phenomena such as the Sun’s power and cycles, the Earth’s orbit around the Sun, ice cap expansion and so on. Thus the average global temperature has varied at all times in the history of our planet, also before humans started burning fossil fuels.
This twist is known as the capital recovery factor R, which is the share of the plant cost that the income must cover over each year of operation such as to balance out the whole project at the end of the plant life. In more formal terms, it converts a serie of equal annual payments over a set length of time into a present value. Two terms are needed to compute the capital recovery factor: the discount rate r and the economic plant life T. Capital costs = where R = 14 R · cp H· f r · (1 + r )T (1 + r )T − 1 Also referred to as overnight costs in some studies.
In agreement with the second law of thermodynamics, the Earth transforms short wavelength- to long wavelength radiations. ) while the radiation wavelength from Earth is typically in the infrared part of the spectrum, which our eyes cannot detect. 7 shows the Planck curve for incoming radiations from the Sun at T = 5,800 K and outgoing from the Earth at T = 288 K. 16) The last integral appears by substitution of x = hc/λkT and can be shown to be equal 2π 5 k 4 to π 4 /15. 5 Energy and Climate 23 Fig.
Energy Technologies and Economics by Patrick A. Narbel, Jan Petter Hansen, Jan R. Lien