By Laurier L. Schramm
Beforehand colloid technology books have both been theoretical, or thinking about particular kinds of dispersion, or on particular functions. This then is the 1st publication to supply an built-in creation to the character, formation and prevalence, balance, propagation, and makes use of of the commonest different types of colloidal dispersion within the process-related industries.
the first concentration is at the functions of the foundations, being attentive to functional strategies and difficulties. this can be performed either as a part of the therapy of the basics, the place applicable, and in addition within the separate sections dedicated to particular varieties of industries. all through, the therapy is built-in, with the foundations of colloid and interface technology universal to every dispersion sort provided for every significant actual estate category, through separate remedies of positive factors exact to emulsions, foams, or suspensions.
the 1st half the e-book introduces the basic ideas, introducing readers to suspension formation and balance, characterization, and circulation houses, emphasizing useful points all through. the subsequent chapters speak about a variety of commercial purposes and examples, helping emphasize different methodologies which were effectively applied.
total, the ebook exhibits the best way to process making emulsions, foams, and suspensions with various priceless houses, the right way to propagate them, and the way to avoid their formation or destabilize them if necessary.
the writer assumes no previous wisdom of colloid chemistry and, with its thesaurus of keywords, whole cross-referencing and indexing, this can be a must-have for graduate scientists and engineers who might come upon or use emulsions, foams, or suspensions, or combos thereof, no matter if in method layout, business construction, or in comparable R&D fields.
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Additional resources for Emulsions, foams, and suspensions : fundamentals and applications
Decreases. It is clear from Eq. 20) that as p ! e. e. the counter ions are bound to micelles, DGm ¼ RT ln½c:m:c: ð2:24Þ which is the same equation as for nonionic surfactants. , it has not escaped criticism. For example, the assumption that surfactants exist in solution in only two forms, namely single ions and micelles of uniform size, is debatable. Analysis of various experimental results has shown that micelles have a size distribution that is narrow and concentration dependent. Thus, the assumption of a single aggregation number is an oversimpliﬁcation and, in reality, there is a micellar size distribution.
It represents the association and dissociation rate for a single molecule entering and leaving the micelle, which may be represented by Eq. 7). kþ Sn S þ SnÀ1 Ð À k ð2:7Þ where kþ and kÀ represent the association and dissociation rate respectively for a single molecule entering or leaving the micelle. The slower relaxation time t2 corresponds to a relatively slow process, namely the micellization–dissolution, represented by Eq. 6); t2 is of the order of milliseconds (10À3 –1 s) and hence can be conveniently measured by stopped-ﬂow methods.
Fluorocarbon and silicone surfactants are sometimes referred to as superwetters as they cause enhanced wetting and spreading of their aqueous solution. However, they are much more expensive than conventional surfactants and are only applied for speciﬁc applications whereby the low surface tension is a desirable property. Fluorocarbon surfactants have been prepared with various structures, consisting of perﬂuoroalkyl chains and anionic, cationic, amphoteric and poly(ethylene oxide) polar groups.
Emulsions, foams, and suspensions : fundamentals and applications by Laurier L. Schramm