By Alec M. Ansons
Manchester Royal Eye health center, Oxford, united kingdom. continues the fundamental framework of the former version, c1991, and encompasses a new bankruptcy on an 'Introduction to Concomitant Strabismus,' with all different chapters revised and up-to-date. Halftone illustrations. DNLM: Ocular Motility Disorders--diagnosis.
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Extra info for Diagnosis and Management of Ocular Motility Disorders
LIPS, Lyon. C. E. (1951)Refractive and ocular findings in the newborn. American Journal of Ophthalmology 34,1407-1413. H. M. (1988) Photographic screening for factors leading to amblyopia. American Orthoptic ]ournal38,51-55. C. & Howland, B. (1974) Photorefraction: a technique for study of refractive state at a distance. Journal of Optometric Society of America 64,240-249. , Braddick, 0. & French, J. (1978) Infant astigmatism measured by photorefraction. Science 202,331-333. , Atkinson, J. & Braddick, 0.
To assess axial refraction the patient should look directly at the retinoscope light; even infants will usually do so as there is no other object of interest. Acorrectly centred trial frame facilitates refraction. If a young child will not tolerate the frame a lens rack or hand-held lenses can be used instead. The light beam should fall on the optic axis of the eye so that the reflection comes from the posterior pole. If the beam enters the eye obliquely, off-axis retinoscopy results in overestimation of hypermetropia, underestimation of myopia and spurious indications of astigmatism.
5 DS for cyclopentolate or 1 DS for atropine is now considered unnecessary, since the patient should be able to relax his accommodation sufficiently to accept the lenses. Refraction 31 GUIDELINES In accommodative esotropia it is sensible to prescribe the maximum power convex lenses which can be tolerated and still give the patient optimum distance vision. If hypermetropia is overcorrected or if the patient is unable to accept the lenses the resulting reduction in vision can be a barrier to fusion and can lead to noncompliance with spectacle wear.
Diagnosis and Management of Ocular Motility Disorders by Alec M. Ansons