By Jill Jonnes
"Superb. [A] excellent narrative" (The Wall road Journal ) in regards to the arguable development of recent York's loved unique Penn Station and its tunnels.
As bestselling books like Ron Chernow's Titan and David McCullough's The nice Bridge verify, readers are serious about the grand personalities and schemes that populated long island on the shut of the 19th century. Conquering Gotham re- creates the riveting fight waged by means of the good Pennsylvania Railroad to construct Penn Station and the huge method of tunnels that might attach water-bound long island to the remainder of the continent via rail. Historian Jill Jonnes tells an exquisite story of snarling plutocrats, engineering feats, and backroom politicking filled with the main colourful figures of Gilded Age ny.
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Extra resources for Conquering Gotham: Building Penn Station and Its Tunnels
Crossing locations for vented fords should be selected so that sloped culvert entrances, when formed, are self-cleansing. A low-level bridge, usually of concrete, may be used instead of a vented ford at locations where culverts cannot handle the day-to-day stream flow. In this case a low-cost bridge may be designed so that its surface is covered by water during the design flood. 6 Aerial photography Aerial photography is the science of taking a photograph from a point in the air, usually from a fixed wing aircraft, for the purpose of making some kind of study of the ground surface.
High oblique photographs are taken with the axis of the camera up to about 20° from the horizontal so that the horizon is included; these are mainly used for pictorial and illustrative purposes as they provide panoramic views in familiar perspective (like a ground photograph taken from a commanding height). Low oblique photographs are taken with the camera axis inclined at such an angle that the horizon is not shown; if the angle as measured from the vertical axis is large 26 Highways a perspective view is obtained similar to that for a high oblique photograph, whereas if the angle is small the result very closely resembles a vertical photograph.
In concept, the search for the line of a new road involves a combination reconnaissance–preliminary survey (which is dominated by transport planning activities) and a final location survey. The reconnaissance–preliminary survey involves a transport planning investigation (see reference 2) which is carried out in conjunction with a desk-based physical site survey. Simplistically, the steps involved in this survey can be summarized as follows: (1) determine the approximate traffic volume along a general corridor suggested by traffic desire lines; (2) select the road type, the number of lanes needed to carry the traffic load, and the level of service to be provided to road users; (3) establish one or more preliminary routes that meet desire-line needs, and sketch preliminary designs, including interchange and flyover locations; (4) assign traffic to one or more of the selected routes to determine design traffic volumes; (5) adjust routes and complete preliminary plans for major alternative road locations; (6) compare alternative locations using cost, environmental, road user benefit, and social analyses and select the preferred one(s) for public consultation.
Conquering Gotham: Building Penn Station and Its Tunnels by Jill Jonnes