By OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Oil, coal and ordinary fuel will stay the worlds dominant resources of strength over the following many years, with ensuing carbon dioxide emissions set to extend to unsustainable degrees. notwithstanding, applied sciences that support decrease CO2 emissions from fossil fuels can opposite this development. CO2 trap and garage (CCS) is very promising. CCS takes CO2 from huge desk bound assets and shops it in deep geological layers to avoid its liberate into the ambience.
Responding to a G8 Gleneagles request, this examine files development towards the improvement of CCS, covering capture, transportation and garage applied sciences and their costs; storage potential estimates, regional evaluate of CCS potential; legal and regulatory frameworks; public information and outreach strategies; and monetary mechanisms and foreign mechanisms.
It additionally discusses the position of CCS in formidable new strength situations that goal for big emissions relief. This e-book elaborates the potential for CCS in coal-fuelled electrical energy iteration and estimates for trap within the and gas transformation sectors. ultimately, it assesses the infrastructure had to procedure and delivery huge volumes of CO2.
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Extra resources for CO2 Capture and Storage: A Key Carbon Abatement Option (International Energy Agency)
Source: IEA, 2008 (ETP Model). © OECD/IEA, 2008 Storage share (%) 60 © OECD/IEA, 2008 45 3. CO2 CAPTURE TECHNOLOGIES 3. CO2 CAPTURE TECHNOLOGIES F I N D I N G S Q Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) can be applied to fossil fuelled power plants, in industrial processes and in the fuel production and transformation sectors. Q Three main technology options exist for CO2 capture: post-combustion, pre-combustion, and oxyfueling (or denitrogenation). Q CO2 capture and pressurisation requires energy, it reduces overall energy efﬁciency and it adds cost.
This makes biomass with CCS a potentially important option if a very rapid reduction of CO2 emissions is needed. The cost per tonne of CO2 removal through CCS, however, depends on the plant size. Typically, it is estimated that the cost per tonne of CO2 removed doubles for each order of magnitude reduction in the size of plant. Biomass plants will usually be smaller than coal fired power plants because of feedstock availability and transport limitations. Biomass can also be co-combusted in coal fired plants.
5 Reduction in CO2 Emissions from the Baseline Scenario in the Power Sector in the ACT Map and BLUE Map Scenarios in 2050, by Technology Area Key point A mix of nuclear, renewables and CCS plays an important role in reducing emissions in the power sector. ACT Map 14 Gt CO2 reduction BLUE Map 18 Gt CO2 reduction Hydro 2% Gas efficiency 2% Geothermal 3% Fuel switching CCS 26% coal to gas 10% IGCC coal 4% Hydro 2% Geothermal 1% Gas efficiency 6% CCS 21% Fuel switching coal to gas 27% Wind 9% Ultra/supercritical coal 4% Solar PV 5% Nuclear 15% Solar CSP 4% BIGCC & biomass Nuclear co-combustion 14% 1% IGCC coal 5% Ultra/supercritical coal 5% Wind 12% BIGCC & biomass co-combustion 8% Solar PV 7% Solar CSP 7% Note: Excludes the impact of end-use efﬁciency and electriﬁcation.
CO2 Capture and Storage: A Key Carbon Abatement Option (International Energy Agency) by OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development