By Michael R. Lindeburg PE
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The differences in elevation thus obtained are averaged to obtain the final result. The averaging process eliminates instrumental errors and natural errors, such as curvature. Errors due to refraction can be minimized by ensuring that the elapsed time for the process is kept to a minimum. To perform the peg test, the surveyor first places two stakes at a distance of 200–300 ft (60– 90 m) apart. The level is set up midway (paced) between the two stakes, and rod readings are taken at both locations [see Figure 2-26(a), first setup].
31 32 CHAPTER TWO transfer to a computer. The digital level is an automatic level (pendulum compensator) capable of normal optical leveling with a rod graduated in feet or meters. 5 m to about 100 m. This simple one-button operation initiates storage of the rod reading and distance measurement and the computation of the point elevation. The instrument’s central processing unit (CPU) compares the processed image of the rod reading with the image of the whole rod, which is stored permanently in the level’s memory module, thus determining height and distance values.
A level surface is a curved surface parallel to the mean surface of the earth. A level surface is best visualized as being the surface of a large body of water at rest. A horizontal line is a straight line perpendicular to a vertical line. Ground Surface Level Line Level Line Level Line Difference in Elevation Between Points A and B B A Datum Elev. B Elev. S. 20 * 10–3 gpu — — — Instrument standards Automatic or tilting levels with parallel plate micrometers; invar scale rods Automatic or tilting levels with optical micrometers or three-wire levels; invar scale rods Geodetic levels and invar scale rods Geodetic levels and rods Field procedures Double-run; forward and backward, each section Double-run; forward and backward, each section Double- or single-run Double- or single-run Section length 1–2 km 1–2 km 1–3 km for double-run 1–3 km for double-run Maximum length of sight 50 m Class I; 60 m Class II 60 m 70 m 90 m Principal uses: Minimum standards; higher accuracies may be used for special purposes Recommended spacing of lines: National Network (Continued) 23 24 Table 2-1 (Continued ) First Order Classification Class I, Class II Second Order Class I Class II Third Order Field procedures† Maximum difference in lengths of forward and backward sights Per setup 2 m Class I; 5 m Class II Per section (cumulative) 4 m Class I; 10 m Class II Maximum length of line between connections Net A: 300 km 5m 10 m 10 m 10 m 10 m 10 m 50 km 50 km double-run; 25 km single-run 25 km double-run; 10 km single-run 6 mm 1K 8 mm 1K 12 mm 1K 6 mm 1K 8 mm 1K 12 mm 1K Net B: 100 km Maximum closures‡ Section; forward and backward 3 mm 1K Class I; 4 mm 1K Class II; Loop or line 4 mm 1K Class I; 5 mm 1K Class II* *See text for discussion of instruments.
Civil Engineering Reference Manual for the Pe Exam by Michael R. Lindeburg PE