New PDF release: Cellular Networks - Positioning, Performance Analysis,

By Agassi Melikov

ISBN-10: 9533072466

ISBN-13: 9789533072463

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Wireless Positioning: Fundamentals, Systems and State of the Art Signal Processing Techniques 45 B. Minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) The classical beamforming method has weights which are independent of the signals and noise. The idea of MVDR is to use the estimated signal and noise parameters to improve the performance. It attempts to minimize the variance due to noise, while keeping the gain in the direction of steering equal to unity: w(θ ) = arg min w ( w H Rw ), subject to w H a(θ ) = 1 The solution of this optimization problem can be shown to have the following form: w= R −1a(θ ) a (θ )R −1a(θ ) H (75) The resulting spectrum has an expression as: P (θ ) = w opt Rw opt = a H (θ )R −1RR −1a(θ ) 1 = H a (θ )R −1a(θ ) [ a H (θ )R −1a(θ )]2 (76) The main benefit of this method is a substantial increase in resolution compared with beamforming.

As a refinement of this architecture, Hall proposed a hybrid approach to data fusion of location information based on the combination of level one and level two fusion (Kleine-Ostmann, 2001). 28 Cellular Networks - Positioning, Performance Analysis, Reliability Based on the JDL model and its specialization to first and second level hybrid data fusion, an architecture for the position estimation problem in cellular networks is constructed. Fig. 18. shows the data fusion model that uses four level data fusion.

Gaussian or ±1 binaries will also exhibit a very low coherence with any fixed representation Ψ. Since M

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Cellular Networks - Positioning, Performance Analysis, Reliability by Agassi Melikov

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