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Extra info for Bacteria and Viruses
Microbiologists often identify bacteria by the presence of specific molecules on their cell surfaces, which are detected with specific antibodies. Antibodies are serum proteins that bind very tightly to foreign molecules (antigens) in an immune reaction aimed at removing or destroying the antigens. Antibodies have remarkable specificity, and the substitution of even one amino acid in a protein might prevent that protein from being recognized by an antibody. In the case of E. coli and Salmonella enterica, there are thousands of different strains (called serovars, for serological variants), which differ from one another mainly or solely in the antigenic identity of their lipopolysaccharide, flagella, or capsule.
W. B. Inc. of the death phase depends on the species and the medium. Bacteria do not necessarily die even when starved of nutrients, and they can remain viable for long periods of time. Factors Affecting Bacterial Growth As a group, bacteria depend on a wide range of substances for their growth. In general, however, in order for any type of bacterial cell to grow, it requires a source of carbon and a source of energy. How bacterial cells utilize the substances 36 7 Growth, Ecology, and Evolution of Bacteria 7 in their environments to obtain carbon and energy varies substantially, and this underlies the diversity of metabolic pathways seen throughout the Bacteria domain.
However, while genetic exchange drives the perpetual evolution of bacteria, allowing the organisms to adapt in response to new conditions, it also underlies the phenomenon of antibiotic resistance, which has become a significant concern in the medical treatment of bacterial infection. Reproductive Processes Asexual reproduction, in the form of binary fission, budding, or sporulation, represents the primary mode of 24 7 Bacterial Morphology and Reproduction 7 reproduction utilized by bacteria. Asexual reproduction is augmented by genetic exchange, which occurs via three different mechanisms: transformation, transduction, or conjugation.
Bacteria and Viruses by Britannica Educational Publishing