By Paul L. Leventhal, Sharon Tanzer
Viewed via specialists as being at the threshold of buying nuclear guns, Argentina and Brazil have lately taken steps to guarantee one another their nuclear courses are completely peaceable. This studies on a 1989 convention that expected those occasions and explored the methods being taken today.
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Extra resources for Averting a Latin American Nuclear Arms Race: New Prospects and Challenges for Argentine-Brazil Nuclear Co-operation
IAEA safeguards apply along with EURATOM safeguards, although IAEA inspectors do not have the same unlimited access to EURATOM facilities and personnel. A third option is a more limited programme of mutual assurance between Argentina and Brazil that could include the following steps: • announcement that the programmes are for peaceful use; • exchange of visits by officials and experts; • bilateral inspections; • multinational operation of sensitive facilities. Dr Milton M. Hoenig Hoenig described recent arms control agreements that could serve as potential models for a bilateral nuclear confidence-building arrangement between Argentina and Brazil.
Initial plans called for EURATOM to undertake nuclear research and development, manage nuclear power plants and associated facilities, and contract for and own all special nuclear material. The withdrawal of France from EURATOM's joint research and development effort slowed its progress but did not affect the implementation of the safeguards. EURATOM safeguards inspectors have unlimited access to EURATOM nuclear facilities and personnel. Policies regarding nuclear material accounting are made by the Commission and enforced by member states, which are also responsible for physical protection measures.
The lAEA specifically permits safeguarded nuclear material to be removed from safeguards and to be used in nuclear submarines. As a consequence of Britain's use of nuclear submarines during the Malvinas War, Argentina requested an opinion from the lAEA as to whether the use of safeguarded nuclear material in nuclear submarines violated the IAEA's peaceful use requirement Although the lAEA's statute directs that nuclear energy not be used for military purposes, the lAEA replied that nuclear naval propulsion systems are not incompatible with a country's commitment to the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
Averting a Latin American Nuclear Arms Race: New Prospects and Challenges for Argentine-Brazil Nuclear Co-operation by Paul L. Leventhal, Sharon Tanzer