By Emilio Santoro
Autonomy, seen as a subject's self reliant designing of her personal precise 'individuality', isn't really a constitutive challenge for liberal concept. seeing that its earliest formulations, liberalism has taken it with no consideration that conserving rights is a enough warrantly for the primacy of person subjectivity. the main harmful legacy of the 'hierarchical-dualist' illustration of the topic is the primacy given to cause in defining an individual's identification. For Santoro freedom isn't really a hard and fast degree. it's not the box of powers and rights defining an individual's position and identification. it is very the end result of a approach wherein members constantly re-define the form in their individuality. Freedom is every thing that every people manages to be in his or her lively and unsure competition to exterior 'pressures'.
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Extra resources for Autonomy, Freedom and Rights: A Critique of Liberal Subjectivity
Focusing on the processes of socialisation and conditioning rules out the possibility, that Berlin (1958, 135) feared so much, oftheorising «a strategic retreat into an inner citadel- my reason, my soul, my 'noumenal' self - which, do what they may, neither external blind force, nor human malice, can touch». It also rules out any foundation based upon the idea of 'authenticity', originality. The idea that one can completely do away with one's language and cultural premises seems to be flawed by what Richard Rudner (1966, 138) defined as the 'reproductive fallacy'.
He is not satisfied with saying that this claim puts a rhetorical weapon in the hands of the powerful, namely the argument that if an individual saw what her real interests are, she would not resist the imposition. He also claims that such a theory allows one to say that an individual is not being constrained because «he has eo ipso chosen it, not indeed consciously, not as he seems in everyday life, but in his role as a rational self which his empirical self may not know - the 'real' self which discerns the good, and cannot help choosing it once it is revealed» (Berlin, 1958, 133).
It is based on the belief that, while there is link of 'necessary' relevance among 'factual judgements', there is no such link between them and value judgements. Actually, however, nothing compels us to accept some 'factual judgements' as bearing upon other 'factual judgements'. As Willard Van Orman Quine (1951) has shown, contrary to one of the dogmas of modern empiricism, there is no deep distinction between standards of justification in the field of factual judgements and in that of value judgements.
Autonomy, Freedom and Rights: A Critique of Liberal Subjectivity by Emilio Santoro