By Julian the Apostate
Julian the Apostate, the final pagan emperor of Rome, wrote opposed to the Galileans as a feedback of Christianity.
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Additional resources for Against the Galileans
But most, including Paul, do not invoke the further issue of omnipotence. Nicholas de Dinkelsbühl, Questiones in libros Sententiarum (Questiones communes), Prologue, q. 1; Vienna, Schottenstift 269(274), fol. 3r; Super I et II Sententiarum (Questiones magistrales), Prologue, q. 1; Vienna, Schottenstift 254(230), fol. 39v–40r: ‘secundo sic: omnis habitus procedens ex principiis sibi creditis notis autem in lumine superioris scientie est proprie scientia, licet subalternata. Patet de musica, que est scientia proprie subalternata quia procedit ex principiis sibi creditis et notis in arismetica, et idem de perspectiva, que credit principia que nota sunt in geometria.
Consequentia tenet. Antecedens probatur quia si Deus causaret unam scientiam absque omni subiecto, talis nulli esset evidens quia nullus per eam esset sciens, et tamen vere esset scientia, quia esset certitudinalis veritas principiorum et necessaria illatio conclusionum ex ipsis. : ‘Secundo, arguo aliter ad propositum. Astronomia de motibus ut traditur a Ptolomeo in Almagesti vere dicitur scientia quia est una VII artium liberalium et tamen multa supponit ibi inevidentia etiam sibi. Similiter, omnis posteriori astrologi ut Thebit, Campanus, Alphonsus supponunt certes radices et tabulas quas nec per evidenciam nec per demonstrationem nec per assensum habent, sed per experientiam antiquorum.
In his second argument for the proposition, James makes the connection with the subalternate sciences. As it has been transmitted through Ptolemy, astronomy is truly called a science, since it is one of the seven liberal arts. Yet it supposes many things that are at least internally non-evident. 24 James also notes that one might argue that, although Ptolemy himself was not an expert, the things he supposed could be put to the test of reason, which is not the case for the articles of faith. But James suggests that this concedes the questions, since neither Ptolemy nor anyone before him had scientia, and Ptolemy himself did not have evident knowledge, so that evident knowledge is not necessary for science.
Against the Galileans by Julian the Apostate