By D. W. Phillipson David W. Phillipson
David Phillipson provides an illustrated account of African prehistory, from the origins of humanity via ecu colonization during this revised and accelerated variation of his unique paintings. Phillipson considers Egypt and North Africa of their African context, comprehensively reviewing the archaeology of West, East, important and Southern Africa. His ebook demonstrates the relevance of archaeological study to knowing modern Africa and stresses the continent's contribution to the cultural background of humankind.
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Extra info for African Archaeology, Third Edition
This continued adaptation to a less restrictive habitat, doubtless linked (as the teeth indicate) with the adoption of a more omnivorous diet, may have been a major step in the evolutionary processes which led to the emergence of humankind. When the African fossil hominoid record resumes around 5 million years ago, it is almost exclusively in eastern and southern Africa that true hominids are represented; they occur with an abundance that contrasts markedly with the earlier periods. Despite the wide Old World distribution of the mid-Miocene hominoids, the evidence currently available suggests that it was probably in Africa that hominids ﬁrst evolved.
Walker and Leakey 1993). This juvenile individual, further discussed in chapter 3, had an even larger cranial capacity than his predecessors, and presented a striking contrast with P. ) boisei, which may have been his only hominid contemporary. 6 million years ago (Klein 1999, citing H. Roche), when H. ergaster was also present in the area. Further conﬁrmation of the co-existence of early Homo and a robust australopithecine comes from Olduvai Gorge in northern Tanzania (Fig. 15). 8 million years (L.
Subsequently, further fossils have been recovered and attributed to H. erectus/ergaster (Asfaw et al. 2002). This period, again one when arid conditions prevailed (de Menocal 1995), is of particular signiﬁcance because of the archaeological evidence, to be discussed below, for the earliest use of tools. 0 million years are very fragmentary. Homo may have evolved from an australopithecine such as A. afarensis (Tobias 1980; A. C. Walker and Leakey 1993; Klein 1999). The earliest specimens are of the type designated Homo habilis, known from several sites in eastern Africa and possibly from South Africa also.
African Archaeology, Third Edition by D. W. Phillipson David W. Phillipson